Bees are crucial to life on earth – we rely on them to pollinate many of the fruit and veg we eat.
Bumblebees are mainly under threat because of changes to the countryside in the UK. Changes in agricultural techniques have meant that there are far fewer wildflowers in the landscape than there used to be, meaning that many of our bumblebee species are struggling to survive. The dramatic decline in populations of most species, and the extinction of two species in the UK, show that something needs to be done.
Causes of bumblebee declines
When we think of the British and our local countryside we often think of rolling green fields with crops or livestock. However, it wasn’t always this way. Until relatively recently, the British landscape was much more colourful. The fields had many more wildflowers, and these supported a much greater diversity of wildlife. However, technology and demand for increased food production meant that traditional agricultural practises were abandoned in favour of techniques which increased productivity but ultimately reduced the abundance of wildflowers in the countryside. Indeed, it has been estimated that we have lost 97% of our flower-rich grassland since the 1930s. As bees rely entirely upon flowers for food, it is unsurprising that their populations began to rapidly decline in most places. Bees are crucial to life on earth-we rely on them to pollinate many of the fruit and veg we eat, Bees dying is a major threat to our food chain.
The result of this has been that two species have become extinct in the UK since the start of the 21st century: Cullem’s bumblebee (Bombus cullumanus), was last recorded in 1941.
The Short-haired bumblebee (Bombus subterraneus), was last recorded in 1988.
Both of these species are still found in Europe, but the British populations may have been specially adapted to our climate and environment. Sadly, several other bumblebee species are in trouble, and could become extinct in the UK within a short time. Two species in particular, the Great yellow bumblebee and the Shrill carder bee, are now only present in small numbers.
Impact of bumblebee declines
It is well-known that bumblebees are great pollinators, and therefore have a key role in producing much of the food that we eat. Through the pollination of many commercial crops such as tomatoes, peas, apples and strawberries, insects are estimated to contribute over £400 million per annum to the UK economy and €14.2 billion per annum to the EU economy. If bumblebee and other insect pollinator declines continue, the extremely high cost of pollinating these plants by other means could significantly increase the cost of fruit and vegetables.
Bumblebees also help pollinate many wildflowers, allowing them to reproduce. Without this pollination many of these plants would not produce seeds, resulting in declines in wildflowers. As these plants are often the basis of complex food chains, it is easy to imagine how other wildlife such as other insects, birds and mammals would all suffer if bees disappeared.
The government Minister with responsibility for bees-Liz Truss-hasn’t been doing as much as she should to protect our bees. Last month she lifted the ban on on bee killing pesticides in some areas.
Ban lifted on controversial ‘neonic’ pesticide http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-33641646
What can be done?
Fortunately, there is much that can be done to benefit bumblebees.The Bumblebee Conservation Trust works to raise awareness of the plight of the bumblebee amongst the general public. http://bumblebeeconservation.org/about-bees/why-bees-need-help/ In particular, they help members by providing information about bumblebees, as well as newsletters with information and advice about the latest happenings in the bumblebee world. It is also possible for individuals and other groups to help bumblebees in their own communities. Perhaps the simplest thing to do is to plant some bee-friendly plants in your garden. This is explained more extensively in Gardening for bumblebees. . As gardens cover over one million acres in the UK, this presents a great opportunity to provide food for bumblebees. By using this space more effectively everyone can get involved in making the landscape more friendly to bumblebees and help reverse the declines we have seen.